4th Year

Microbiological Techniques

Author or Compiler
Cultivation of microorganisms
General methods of isolation
Maintenance and preservation of cultures
Growth of bacteria
Measurement of microbial growth
Microbiology of food
Microbiology of milk
Microbial water pollution
Control of microorganisms

Marine Botany

Introduction
Diversity
Factors concerning plankton
Factors concerning sea weeds and reef
Estuarine ecology
Toxic Algae and human health
Role
Marine Biotechnology

Ethnobotany

Introduction
TBK
Methods of study
Ethnopharmacology
Plants in material culture
Traditional plant use and management
History of plant- human interaction
Applied and applying ethnobotany

Climate Change Biology

Understanding global climate
Causes of global climate change
Climate change phenomena
Landform effects and vegetation
Impacts of global climate change
Mitigation and adaption

Autoecology and Environment

Introduction
The environment of plants
The role of green plants in nature
Energy environment
Salinity
Interactions between organisms
Marine environment
Soil environment
Ecosystem balance and imbalance
Environmental toxicology
Plant and Pollution

Plant Physiology and Plant Nutrition

Photosynthesis
Respiration
Growth and development
Enzymes
Mineral nutrients
Ion absorption of plants
Pathways of translocation of ions

Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Genomics
Proteomics
Bioinformatics

Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology

Historical background

Horticulture and Agronomy

Introduction
Classification of horticultural plants
Classification of vegetables
Preparation of seedbed
Propagation of horticultural plants
Fertilizer
Irrigation
Olericulture
Pomology
Floriculture

Biological Limnology

The diversity of Limnological organisms
Planktonic organisms
Primary productivity
Nutrient requirements of phytoplankton
Biological characteristics of tracheophytes
Photosynthesis and heterophilly
Geography of hydrophytes
Aquatic weeds

Numerical Cytogenetics

Numerical aberration
Aneuploid: (a) Hyperploid
Euploid
Speciation through allopolyploidy and segmental allopolyploidy
Human cytogenetics

Microbial Plant Pathology

Mycoplasma diseases
Viral diseases
Bacterial diseases
Nematode diseases

Seed Pathology

Introduction
Seed diseases
Location of fungal hyphae in seeds
Seed health testing
Histopathology
Seed-plant-seed transmission
Seed certification
Storage diseases
Control of seed borne diseases

Evolution

Introduction
Pre-Darwinian conceptsChambers, Kammerer, Buffon & Spencer (D)Abulais Shomrat
Darwin-Wallace theoryVoyage of the Beagle (D)Abulais Shomrat
Prodigality of Reproduction (D)Abulais Shomrat
Contribution of Wallace (D)Abulais Shomrat
Pattern of Evolution (D)Abulais Shomrat
Evidences of evolution
Synthetic theory of evolutionSynthetic theory of Evolution (D)Abulais Shomrat
Natural selectionNatural Selection (D)Abulais Shomrat
SpeciationSpecies concept & Speciation (D)Abulais Shomrat
Isolation & Speciation (D)Abulais Shomrat
Chemical theory of origin of lifeChemical evolution of life (D)Abulais Shomrat
Human evolutionHuman Evolutin (D)Abulais Shomrat
CosmologyCosmology & Big Bang (D)Abulais Shomrat