Bentham and Hooker places this family under the series Glumaceae of the Monocotyledons. According to the Engler it belongs to the order Glumiflorae. Hutchinson places it under the order Graminales belonging to the division Glumiflorae.
The members of this family is cosmopolitan and grow on almost all types of habitat. There are varying number of genus between 340 and 525. The number of species is about 4,000.
Annual or perrenial herbs, erect or prostate usually cylindrical jointed solid at nodes and hollow at the internodes.
Simple, alternate with distichous phyllotaxy, leaves usually linear to lanceolate with parallel venation, leafbase sheathing, a hyaline membraneous or hairy ligule present at the junction of the table.
Spike or spikelet.
Incompleate, bisexual hypogynous, each flower arises in the axils of a flowering glumes oe lemma, which encloses it at the base and 2 nerved glume, called palea, placed above the flowering glume.
Represented by greatly reduced scales called lodicules, placed within the palea.
Stamens usually 3 in a single whorl or in two alternating trimerous whrols, another versatile 2 celled, filaments delicate.
Carpels 3, united ovary superior, unilocular with 1 ovule, styles usually 2, stigmas usually 2, plumose whitish.
With copious starchy endosperm, embryo minute.
- Plant annual or perennial herbs.
- Stem hollow, cylindrical, nodes enclosed and swollen.
- Leaves simple, solitary, ligulate sessile, leaf base sheathing.
- Inflorescence spike or spikelet.
- Flower bisexual, small and inconspicuous.
- Perianth is represented by 2 lodicules.
- Stamens 3 carples of nonocarpellary fruit-caryopsis.
Important Plants of Poaceae Family
Economically it is a very important family. Plants described here in different banners are:
|Purpose||Plant name and comments||Image|
Oryza sativa L.
Triticum aestivum L.
Hordeum vulgare L.
|Sugar||Saccharum officinarum L.
|Fooder||Cynodon dactylon Pers.|
|Oil||Cymbopogon citratus Stapf
Cymbopogon nardus Rendl