Monocotylidonous Family: Poaceae

Systematic position

Bentham and Hooker places this family under the series Glumaceae of the Monocotyledons. According to the Engler it belongs to the order Glumiflorae. Hutchinson places it under the order Graminales belonging to the division Glumiflorae.


The members of this family is cosmopolitan and grow on almost all types of habitat. There are varying number of genus between 340 and 525. The number of species is about 4,000.

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General  charecters


Annual or perrenial herbs, erect or prostate usually cylindrical jointed solid at nodes and hollow at the internodes.


Simple, alternate with distichous phyllotaxy, leaves usually linear to lanceolate with parallel  venation, leafbase sheathing, a hyaline membraneous or hairy ligule present at the junction of the table.


Spike or spikelet.


Incompleate, bisexual hypogynous, each flower arises in the axils of a flowering glumes oe lemma, which encloses it at the base and 2 nerved glume, called palea, placed above the flowering glume.


Represented by greatly reduced scales called lodicules, placed within the palea.


Stamens usually 3 in a single whorl or  in two alternating trimerous whrols, another versatile 2 celled, filaments delicate.


Carpels 3, united ovary superior, unilocular with 1 ovule, styles usually 2, stigmas usually 2, plumose  whitish.




With copious starchy endosperm, embryo minute.


Identifying characters

  • Plant annual or perennial herbs.
  • Stem hollow, cylindrical, nodes enclosed and swollen.
  • Leaves simple, solitary, ligulate sessile, leaf base sheathing.
  • Inflorescence spike or spikelet.
  • Flower bisexual, small and inconspicuous.
  • Perianth is represented by 2 lodicules.
  • Stamens 3 carples of nonocarpellary fruit-caryopsis.

Important Plants of Poaceae Family

Economically it is a very important family. Plants described here in different banners are:

Purpose Plant name and comments Image

Oryza sativa L.


Morpho-physicochemical characterization of Kartiksail rice(Oryza ...
Image source: Here

Triticum aestivum L.


Triticum aestivum L. | Poaceae (formerly and, also known as … | Flickr
Image source: Here

Hordeum vulgare L.


Hordeum vulgare L. - Biomedical Education
Image source: Here
Sugar Saccharum officinarum L.


Saccharum officinarum - Wikimedia Commons
Image source: Here
Paper Bambusa sp.
Minden Pictures stock photos - Bamboo (Bambusa sp) stems, growing ...
Image source: Here
Fooder Cynodon dactylon Pers.
Cynodon dactylon - Wikipedia
Image source: Here

Saccharum munja


Saccharum Munja Grass, Munja – 0.5 Kg Seeds – Nurture Plant
Image source: Here
Oil Cymbopogon citratus Stapf

(lemon grass)

Image source: Here

Cymbopogon nardus Rendl

(citronella oil)

Cymbopogon nardus - Wikipedia
Image source: Here

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About Nusrat Jahan

A student of Department of Botany at the University of Dhaka. Opportunity seeker. Hope to do something remarkable. Email: nusratjahannitu81@gmail.com. Minimum monthly resolution- Publish(1), Revise(5), Share(1)

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