Ecology

Methods Of Vegetation: Quantitative

Methods of Calculation of Quantitative Data   Quantitative data for individual species is calculated by the following methods: 1) Frequency = Number of sampling units in which the species occurred/Total number of sampling units studied Relative frequency = Frequency of a sp./Total frequency of all spp. X 100 2) Density …

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Methods Of Vegetation: Qualitative

Vegetation: Definition Vegetation is defined as an assemblage of plants growing together in a particular location. It is characterized either by its component species or by the combination of structure and functional characters that characterize the appearance or physiognomy of vegetation. Vegetation rapidly responds to changes in habitat. If the …

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Classification Of Land

Classification of Global climate The earth can be divided into the following broad climatic zones: Polar and subpolar zone Temperate zone Subtropical zone Tropical zone According to Koppen-Geiger classification, global climate can be divided into the following 6 types: Type A: Equatorial Type B: Arid Type C: Temperate Type D: Cold …

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Phytogeography: Causes And Regions Of The World

Definition  Phytogeography is the study of distribution of plant species and elucidation of origin of flora. The relative position of the 6 continental land masses and large number of islands play an important role in the distribution of various types of plants over the surface of the earth.   Factors …

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Water Budget

Components of Water Budget The water budget of a unit area of the earth’s surface is formed from the components: P = precipitation E = Evaporation D = Discharge, Runoff R = Reserve, storage and U = Use, consumption The conservation law for water satisfies the water balance. P = …

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Geosphere And Biosphere

Geosphere The area near the surface of the earth can be divided into four inter-connected “geo-spheres” – lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. The names of the four spheres are derived from the Greek words for stone (litho), air (atmo), water (hydro), and life (bio).   Lithosphere The lithosphere is the …

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Random Sampling

 Sampling Measuring a small portion of something and then making a general statement about the whole thing is known as sampling. Sampling is a process of selecting a number of units for a study in such a way that the units represent the larger group from which they are selected. …

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Ecological Succession

Definition Ecological succession is a process where one plant community changes into another plant community. It involves the immigration and extinction of species coupled with changes in the relative abundance of different plants. Succession occurs because, for each species, the probability of establishment changes through time as both the abiotic …

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Biogeochemical Cycle ( Part- 2)

[Click here to read ‘Bichemical Cycle (part- 1 )’ ] Threats to the Carbon Cycle Decline in forest growth. Killing of ocean phytoplankton due to rising sea temperatures. Death of forests due to spread of disease and insects. Melting permafrost layer (In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or …

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Biogeochemical Cycles (part- 1)

Definition A biogeochemical cycle or nutrient cycle is a pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic ( lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere ) compartments  of  Earth. ★Nutrient cycle involves 2 general phases- The environmental phase – in which the chemical nutrient is present in …

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