Physiology

Polysaccharides: The Long Chain of Simple Sugars

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide unit bound together by glycosidic linkage. Example: starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin etc. Characteristics of polysaccharide On hydrolysis, they yield monosaccharide units which are usually similar. D glucose is the commonest component of polysaccharide. They have high molecular weight. They …

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Disaccharides: Bonding of Two Simple Sugars

A disaccharide, also called double sugar, is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by a glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides). The most common …

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Photosynthesis: Turning Light Energy into Chemical One

Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that takes place inside a plant, producing sugar type food for the plant to survive. Carbon dioxide, water and light are all needed for photosynthesis to take place. It happens in the leaves of a plant and the other green portions as well. Photosynthesis is a …

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Heterocyst: A Botanical Enigma

Imagine being a very special sibling, having some unique features, acting in a good and interestingly weird way unlike others – feeling important already, right? Heterocyst is such a sibling of other algal cells which altogether make a filamentous structure of the algae. Whereas the other cells perform the function …

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Essential Oil: A Concentrated Hydrophobic Liquid

Essential Oil Essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. They are usually lipophilic (literally: oil-loving) compounds that usually are not miscible with water. Also, they can be diluted in solvents like pure ethanol and polyethylene glycol. They are also known as volatile oils, ethereal …

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The Lipid

Lipids are a heterogeneous group of compounds which are related to fatty acids. They are usually esters of fatty acids with alcohols. Examples include fats, oils, waxes and other substances. Fats (solid) and oils (liquid) = Glycerol (tri-hydroxy alcohol) + 3 fatty acids. Wax = Mono-hydroxyl alcohol + Fatty acid. …

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Introduction to Fatty acids

Fatty acid is an important constituent of fat and is the derivatives of hydrocarbon. It is a carboxylic acid (-COOH) with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Some fatty acids may have hydroxyl group in its chain (hydroxy fatty acids) and still others may possess ring …

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Classification of protein

Proteins are the most abundant macro-molecules, occurring in each cell and each part of a cell. They are generally formed by one or more long chain(s) of amino acid residues. Classification of protein 1) Based on source There are two types of protein. a) Animal protein: They are derived from animal …

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