https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Single_lavendar_flower02.jpg/1200px-Single_lavendar_flower02.jpg

Dicotyledonous Family: Lamiaceae

Systematic position

Bentham and Hooker placed it in the sub-class Gamopetalae, the series Bicarpellate and Cohort Gentianales. According to Engler, it belongs to the sub-class Metachlamydeae, the sub-order Tubiflorae, the sub-order Verbenineae. Hutchinson places it under the order Lamiales belonging to the phylum Herbaceae.

Distribution

The family contains about 200 genera and 3200 species. They are mostly cosmopolitan, the chief centre of distribution being the Mediterranean region.

General  characters

Habit

Mainly annual or perennial herbs sometimes shurbs rarely trees, stem squre with sweet aromatic oils, hairy.

Leaves

Simple, opposit, exstipulate, entire.

Inflorescence

Dichasial cyme or verticillaster.

Flower

Complete, Zygomorphic, bisexual and hypogynous.

Calyx

Sepals 5, gamosepalous, imbricate, tubular or bell shaped persistent.

Corolla

petals 5, gamopetalous imbricate, bilabiate, upper 2 lipped lower 3, usually differentiated into tube and limb.

Androecium

Stamens 4, with an occasional fifth posterior staminode, epipetalous, didynamous with generally the anterior pair longer, anthers 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscing, connective often well developed, necter-bearing discs often present between the stamens and the ovary.

Gynaecium

Carpels 2, medianly placed, united, ovary usually 2 locular as apparently 4-locular by an inward projection of the ovarian wall, with one ovule in each chamber on axile placentae, style single gynobasic stigma 2 lobed.

Fruit

Typically of 4 nutlets(carcerule).

Seeds

Exalbuminous.

 


Identifying character

  • Plants herbs, square stem.
  • Inflorescence verticillaster.
  • Petals bilabiate.
  • Stamens 4, didynamous.
  • Carpels 2, 4-celled, style gynobasic.

Important Plants of Lamiaceae Family

Economically it is a very important family. Plants described here in different banners are:

Purpose Plant name and comments Image
Medicinal Ocimum americanum L.

essential oils used in medicine.

http://tropical.theferns.info/plantimages/b/8/b8b50873be02e451a426e77e1c2bc83df1f11d81.jpg
Image source: Here

Ocimum sanctum L.

leaf  juice used for cough, cold and fever.

Image source: Here

Mentha arvensis L.

stimulant and carminative.

prodcut-image
Image source: Here
Perfumary

Mentha piperita L.

source of pepermint oil.

Peppermint Seeds (Mentha piperita)
Image source: Here

Thymus vulgaris L.

source of thymol also used in medicine.

Image source: Here
Ornamental Salvia splendens
Sellow ex. J.A. Schultes
Salvia splendens (357118788).jpg
Image source: Here
Coleus blumei Benth.
Image source: Here
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About Mst. Nusrat Jahan Nitu

Mst. Nusrat Jahan Nitu
A 1st-year student of Department of Botany at the University of Dhaka. Opportunity seeker. Hope to do something remarkable.

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