Disease of Wheat: Black Rust and Loose Smut

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Black rust of wheat

 

Host

  • Triticum aestivum

Pathogen

  • Puccinia graminis-tritici

Symptoms

  • Rust infection is observed in leaves, leaf sheaths, stems, floral structures in the form of rust pustules.
  • Reddish brown pustules appear during the formation of urediniospore.
  • Black pustules appear during the formation of teliospore.
  • On maturity, the teliospore bursts out and then masses of dark brown teliospores are seen on the stem, so called black rust.
  • In case of severe infection, the diseased plant is stunted.
  • Small spikes and shrivelled grains can be produced or no grains at all.

Control measures

  • Resistant variety should be used.
  • Burning of infected crop varieties.
  • Proper sanitation.
  • Spraying fungicide.

Loose smut of wheat

Host

  • Triticum aestivum

Pathogen

  • Ustilago hordei

Symptoms

  • Loose smut manifests itself only when the ears emerge from the leaf.
  • All spikelets are affected and transformed into a mass of black powder spores.
  • Each smutted spikelet is covered by a thin silvery membrane.
  • The powdery mass of spores is blown off by wind, leaving behind only the central rachis.