Gymnosperms In Bangladesh

Gymnosperms are vascular plants that reproduces by means of an exposed seed, or ovule—unlike angiosperms, or flowering plants, whose seeds are enclosed by mature ovaries, or fruits. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally “naked seeds”) are borne in cones and are not visible until maturity.

So far Taxonomists have recognized 88 genera and more than 1,000 species of Gymnosperms distributed throughout the world.

In our country, Gymnosperms grow both Naturally and Artificially. In this article,  Gymnosperms of Bangladesh will be enlisted and described briefly. 

Gymnosperms that are found in Bangladesh are of Two types:

  1. Gymnosperms grow in wild (Naturally) 
  2. Gymnosperms grown under Cultivation/Gardens 


Gymnosperms grow in Wild (Naturally)

There are Six species of Gymnosperms that grow Naturally in Bangladesh. These are as follows:

1. Cycas pectinata

It is a palm like tree.

Found in hills of Chittagong, CHT and sal forests of northern Mymensingh.

English name: Nepal Cycas.

Family: Cycadaceae.

Cycas pectinata. Details


2. Pinus insularis

It is a small to medium sized tree.

Found in Khasia and Jainta hills and hills of

English name: Khasia pine.

Family: Pinaceae.

Pinus insularis. Details

3. Gnetum montanum (= G. scandens)

An evergreen climber/ scandent shrub.

Found in Sylhet and Chottagong.

English namd: Climbing Gnetum.
Family: Gnetaceae.

Gnetum montanum. Details


4. Gnetum oblongum

It is mainly Scandent shrub.

Found in Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar and

English name: Oblong seeded Gnetum.

Family: Gnetaceae.


5. Gnetum latifolium var. funiculare (= Gnetum funiculare)

It is a large scandent shrub.

Found in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill

English name: Broad-leaved Gnetum.

Family: Gnetaceae.

Gnetum latifolium. Details


6. Podocarpus neriifolius

It is a Small to medium-sized tree.

Found in Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet.

English name: Oleander Podocarpus.

Family: Podocarpaceae.

Podocarpus neriifolius. Details


(B) Gymnosperms grown under Cultivation/ Gardens

     No.     Species       Family
 1. Cycas circinalis Cycadaceae
 2. Cycas revoluta Cycadaceae
 3. Pinus longifolia Pinaceae
 4.  Pinus carribeana Pinaceae
 5.  Thuja orientalis Cupressaceae
 6. Araucaria sp Araucariaceae



Class Lecture of Dr. M. Oliur Rahman,

Department of Botany, University of Dhaka.


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About Saifun Nahar Smriti

Saifun Nahar Smriti
Currently in 2nd year at Department of Botany, University of Dhaka. Curious about the vast Plant science world & wants to contribute some fruitful contents to Plantlet.

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