Different Diseases of Jute

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Jute is a long shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse strong threads. India, China and Bangladesh are three major producers in the cultivation or production of jute fibre.

Before understanding the diseases, lets know different parts of a jute plant so that we can understand where to look for the diseases.

The diseases described in this section are:

  1. Root and stem rot of jute
  2. Anthracnose of jute
  3. Blackband of jute

1. Root & Stem rot of jute

Pathogen

  • Macrophomina phaseolina.
  • Sclerotial stage of the pathogen is Rhizoctonia bataticola.

Infection

  • The disease occurs during almost all stage of plant growth.
Symptoms
  1. On young plant, the infection starts on collar region and cotyledons are also infected.
  2. The affected seedlings show damping off symptoms.
  3. Dark thin streaks develop at the collar region which may increase under humid condition.
  4. On older plants, the leaves are attacked. Lesions appear on the margins and apex of the leaves.
  5. Leaves fall down leaving the plants with bare branches.
  6. Pycnidia are produced on the infected stem and rotting tissue.
  7. When the pathogen infects the capsule, they become black and seeds become discolored and small.
  8. The sclerotia of the pathogen are often seen on the capsule.

2. Anthrcanose of Jute

Generally found in the eastern part of the United States, anthracnose is caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum, a common group of plant pathogens that are responsible for diseases on many plant species.
Symptoms
1. Infected plants develop dark, water soaked lesions on stems, leaves or fruit.
2. The centers of these lesions often become covered with pink, gelatinous masses of spores especially during moist, warm weather.
3. Anthracnose can reduce a beautiful harvest into rotted waste in just a few days
Possible condition for Disease
The fungal disease overwinters in and on seeds, soil and garden debris. Cool wet weather promotes its development, and the optimum temperature for continued growth of the spores is between 75-85˚F. Moisture is required for development and germination of the fungus as well as for infection of the plant. It is spread by wind, rain, insects and garden tools.

3. Blackband Of Jute

Black  Band  (Botryodiplodia  theobromae).

Earlier  this  was  a  minor  disease  but  gradually  it  is spreading.  The  pathogen  affects  both  the  species of  jute  and  causes  serious  damage  to  the  older crop  from  July  onwards,  from  which  neither fibre nor  seeds  can  be  obtained.

Symptoms
1. The  disease  first  appears  as  small  blackish  brown  lesion  which  gradually  enlarges  and  encircles  the  stem  resulting  in withering  of  epical  and  side  branches.
2. Stems  infected  at  the  lower  portion  often  break  at  that  point.
3. The  affected  plants  loose  leaves  and  turn  brown to  black  and  remain  standing  as  dry  sticks.
4.  On  rubbing  the stem  surface, unlike stem  rot  profuse black shooty  mass  of  spores  adhere  to  the  fingers.
5. Crops raised  from  infected  seeds  show  seedling  blight.

Management
Clean cultivation,  seed treatment  with Carbendazim 50  WP  @  2g/kg  and  foliar  application  of Carbendazim  50  WP@  2g/l  water  or  Cu-oxychloride  @  5-7  g/l  water  or  Mancozeb  @  4-5  g/l  water provides  effective  management.