Jute is a long shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse strong threads. India, China and Bangladesh are three major producers in the cultivation or production of jute fibre.
Before understanding the diseases, lets know different parts of a jute plant so that we can understand where to look for the diseases.
The diseases described in this section are:
- Root and stem rot of jute
- Anthracnose of jute
- Blackband of jute
1. Root & Stem rot of jute
- Macrophomina phaseolina.
Sclerotial stage of the pathogen is Rhizoctonia bataticola.
- The disease occurs during almost all stage of plant growth.
- On young plant, the infection starts on collar region and cotyledons are also infected.
- The affected seedlings show damping off symptoms.
- Dark thin streaks develop at the collar region which may increase under humid condition.
- On older plants, the leaves are attacked. Lesions appear on the margins and apex of the leaves.
- Leaves fall down leaving the plants with bare branches.
- Pycnidia are produced on the infected stem and rotting tissue.
- When the pathogen infects the capsule, they become black and seeds become discolored and small.
- The sclerotia of the pathogen are often seen on the capsule.
2. Anthrcanose of Jute
3. Blackband Of Jute
Black Band (Botryodiplodia theobromae).
Earlier this was a minor disease but gradually it is spreading. The pathogen affects both the species of jute and causes serious damage to the older crop from July onwards, from which neither fibre nor seeds can be obtained.
1. The disease first appears as small blackish brown lesion which gradually enlarges and encircles the stem resulting in withering of epical and side branches.
2. Stems infected at the lower portion often break at that point.
3. The affected plants loose leaves and turn brown to black and remain standing as dry sticks.
4. On rubbing the stem surface, unlike stem rot profuse black shooty mass of spores adhere to the fingers.
5. Crops raised from infected seeds show seedling blight.