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Different Diseases of Jute

Jute is a long shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse strong threads. India, China and Bangladesh are three major producers in the cultivation or production of jute fibre.

Before understanding the diseases, lets know different parts of a jute plant so that we can understand where to look for the diseases.

The diseases described in this section are:

  1. Stem rot of jute
  2. Anthracnose of jute
  3. Black band of jute
  4. Soft rot of jute

1. Stem rot of jute

Pathogen

  • Macrophomina phaseolina.
  • Sclerotial stage of the pathogen is Rhizoctonia bataticola.
  • It is a seed borne, air borne and soil borne fungi.

Characteristics of pathogen

  • Pycnidia are produced in the infected stem.
  • Pycnidiospores are one celled, hyaline, elongated with 3:1 ratio of length and breadth.

Infected parts

  • The disease occurs during almost all stages of plant growth.
  • Main infection occurs in the stem (to cortex). Besides, leaves may also get affected.
Symptoms
  1. On young plant, the infection starts on collar region and cotyledons are also infected.
  2. The affected seedlings show damping off symptoms.
  3. Dark thin streaks develop at the collar region which may increase under humid condition.
  4. On older plants, the leaves are attacked. Lesions appear on the margins and apex of the leaves.
  5. Leaves fall down leaving the plants with bare branches.
  6. Pycnidia are produced on the infected stem and rotting tissue.
  7. When the pathogen infects the capsule, they become black and seeds become discolored and small.
  8. The sclerotia of the pathogen are often seen on the capsule.

Control measure

  • Collection of healthy seeds from the infection free area.
  • Crop rotation with paddy.
  • Spraying fungicide before sowing seedlings. E.g Agrosan GN.
  • Application of stem rot disease variety.
  • Early harvesting.

2. Anthracnose of Jute

Generally found in the eastern part of the United States, anthracnose is caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum, a common group of plant pathogens that are responsible for diseases on many plant species.

Pathogen

  • Colletotrichum corchorii

Characteristics of pathogen

  • Condia hyaline.
  • Presence of setae.
  • Conidiophore aseptate.

Infected parts

  • Stem and leaf.

Symptoms

  • Infected plants develop yellowish brown, water soaked lesions on stems, leaves or fruit. Later, the color becomes dark brown to black.
  • The centers of these lesions often become covered with pink, gelatinous masses of spores especially during moist, warm weather.
  • Fiber becomes fragmented.
  • Anthracnose can reduce a beautiful harvest into rotted waste in just a few days.

Possible condition for disease

The fungal disease overwinters in and on seeds, soil and garden debris. Cool wet weather promotes its development, and the optimum temperature for continued growth of the spores is between 75-85˚F. Moisture is required for development and germination of the fungus as well as for infection of the plant. It is spread by wind, rain, insects and garden tools.

3. Blackband Of Jute

Earlier  this  was  a  minor  disease  but  gradually  it  is spreading.  The  pathogen  affects  both  the  species of  jute  and  causes  serious  damage  to  the  older crop  from  July onwards,  from  which  neither fibre nor  seeds  can  be  obtained.

Pathogen

  • Botryodiplodia  theobromae

Characteristics of pathogen

Infected parts

  • Infection occurs at 2-3 feet high from soil to stem.

Symptoms

  • Infection generally occurs on mature plants.
  • Primarily brown color appears but later it becomes black band.
  • Leaf falling from infected plants results in the death of the plant.
  • Black pycnidia are seen in infected portions.

Management

Clean cultivation,  seed treatment  with Carbendazim 50  WP  @  2g/kg  and  foliar  application  of Carbendazim  50  WP@  2g/l  water  or  Cu-oxychloride  @  5-7  g/l  water  or  Mancozeb  @  4-5  g/l  water provides  effective  management.


Soft rot of jute

Pathogen

  • Sclerotium rolfsii

Characteristics of pathogen

  • Mycelia golden brown in color.
  • Mycelia profusely branched.
  • Sclerotium forms within 5 to 7 days.

Infected parts

  • Infection on the base of the stem and near the soil.

Symptoms

  • The infected part becomes spoiled.
  • Sclerotia formed.
  • Infected part: Golden brown.
  • If seedlings get infected, they have a difficulty to survive.

Control measures

  • Burning the infected plant.
  • Deep ploughing of the soil.
  • Soil treatment.
  • Foliar spray of fungicide.

 

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About Farzana Rayhan Runa

Farzana Rayhan Runa

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