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Classification of Medicinal Plants

Before classification we have to know what is a medicinal plant. There are many definitions. 

World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined medicinal plants as plants that contain properties or compounds that can be used for therapeutic purposes or those that synthesize metabolites to produce useful drugs (WHO 2008).

We can classify medicinal plants from different aspects.

Classification of medicinal plants According to habit

  1. Herb
  2. Shrub
  3. Tree
  4. Climber
  5. Epiphyte/Parasite

1. Herb 

The plant stem is not woody and it could be annual or perennial.   

Some example: 

  • Acalypha indica(মুক্তাঝুরি) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Achyranthes aspera(আপাং) -Amaranthaceae
  • Andrographis paniculata(কালমেঘ) -Acanthaceae
  • Bacopa monnieri(ব্রাম্মী শাক) – Scrophulariaceae
  • Boerhavia diffusa (পূনর্ণভা)- Nyctaginaceae
  • Centella asiatica(থানকুনি) – Apiaceae
  • Chenopodium ambrosioides(চন্দন বিটু)- Chenopodiaceae
  • Cuscuta reflexa(স্বর্ণলতা) – Cuscutaceae
  • Curculigo orchioides(তালমুলী)- Liliaceae
  • Cynodon dactylon(দুর্বাঘাস) – Poaceae
  • Datura metel(ধুতুরা) – Solanaceae
  • Euphorbia hirta(বড় দুধিয়া) – Euphorbiaceae.
  • Gloriosa superba(উলটচন্ডাল) – Liliaceae
  • Hemidesmus indicus(অনন্তমুল) – Asclepiadaceae
  • Catharanthus roseus(নয়নতারা)- Apocynaceae
  • Aristolochia indica(ঈশ্বরমূল) – Aristolochiaceae
  • Ichnocarpus frutescens(শ্যামা লতা, কালদুধি, দুধিলতা) – Apocynaceae
  • kalanchoe pinnata(পাথরকুচি) – Crassulaceae
  • Leucas aspera(দন্ডকলস) – Lamiaceae
  • Momordica charantea(করলা) -Cucurbitaceae
  • Ocimum sanctum (Sn: O. tenuiflorum)(তুলসি) – Lamiaceae.
  • Phyllanthus niruri(ভূঁই আমলা) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Tinospora cordifolia(গুলঞ্চ) – Menispermaceae

2. Shrubs

Shrubs are those plants which have bush like woody of semi-woody stem. In addition, they don’t have a single erect stem or if have it is not large enough as a tree. 

Example:

  • Hibiscus rosa-sinensis(জবা) – Malvaceae
  • Calotropis gigantea(বড় আকন্দ) – Asclepiadaceae.
  • Citrus aurantifolia(কাগজীলেবু) – Rutaceae
  • Justicia adhatoda(বাসক) – Acanthaceae
  • Holarrhena antidysenterica(কুরচি) – Apocynaceae
  • Senna alata(দাদমর্দন) – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Glycosmis pentaphylla(মটকিলা) – Rutaceae
  • Hiptage benghalensis(মাধবী লতা) – malpighiaceae
  • Bauhinia acuminata(শ্বেত কাঞ্চন) – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Cassia occidentalis(বড় কল্কাসুন্দে) – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Cajanus cajan(অড়হর) – Fabaeace
  • Jatropha gossypifolia(লাল ভেরেন্ডা)- Euphobiaceae
  • Ricinus communis(ভেরেন্ডা) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Abroma augusta(উলট্কম্বল) -Sterculiaceae

3. Trees

Trees are perennial plants which have a erect stem. 

Example:

  • Acacia catechu(খয়ের)- Mimosaceae
  • Annona squamosa(সরিফা/আতা)- Annonaceae
  • Annona reticulata(নোনা/আতা)- Annonaceae
  • Aegle Marmelos(বেল)- Rutaceae
  • Aphanamixis polystachya(পিতরাজ)- Meliaceae
  • Azadirachta indica(নিম)- Meliaceae
  • Terminalia arjuna(অর্জুন)- Combretaceae
  • Terminalia bellirica(বহেরা)- Combretaceae
  • Terminalia Chebula(হরিতকি)- Combretaceae
  •  Cinnamomum verum(দারুচিনি) – Lauraceae
  • Carica papaya(পেপে)- Caricaceae
  •  Dillenia indica(চালতা) – Dilleniaceae
  • Syzygium cumini(কালোজাম) – Myrtaceae
  • Litsea glutinosa(মেন্দা) – Lauraceae.
  • Oroxylum indicum(কানাইডিঙি) – Bignoniaceae

4. Climbers

Example:

  • Asparagus racemosus(শতমূলী) – Liliaceae
  • Gloriosa superba(উলটচন্ডাল) – Liliaceae
  • Allamanda cathartica(কলকে ফুল) – Apocynaceae
  • Aristolochia indica(ঈশ্বরমূল) – Aristolochiaceae
  • Hemidesmus indicus(অনন্তমুল)- Asclepiadaceae
  • Tinospora cordifolia (গুলঞ্চ)- Menispermaceae
  • Momordica charantia(করলা)- Cucurbitaceae
  • Citrullus colocynthis(তরমুজ)- Cucurbitaceae

5. Epiphytes /Parasites

  • Vanda tessellata(রাস্না)- Orchidaceae
  • Cuscuta reflexa(স্বর্ণলতা) – Cuscutaceae
  • Cassytha filiformis(লাভ ভেইন) – Lauraceae
  • Dendrophthoe falcata(ফোরোলা/ধাইরা) – Loranthaceae

Classification of Medicinal plants based on diseases treated

In this section some common diseases are given with the plants which can cure those diseases or shows possitive effect to patients. Here one plant can be used on different types of disease i.e. Abrus precatorius(কুঁচ ) is helpful or used in the treatment of 17 individual diseases.

1. Cancer

  • Aphanamixis polystachya (পিতরাজ) – Meliaceae
  • Oroxylum indicum (কানাইডিঙি) – Bignoniaceae
  • Plumbago zeylanica(শ্বেতচিতা)- Plumbaginaceae
  • Asclepias curassavica( মরিচা ফুল/ কাকটুরি/ বনকার্পাস) – Asclepiadaceae
  • Vitex negundo(নিশিন্দা) – Verbenaceae
  • Scoparia dulcis(বন ধনে) -Plantaginaceae
  • Acorus calamus(বচ) – Acoraceae
  • Jatropha curcas(সাদা ভেরেন্ডা) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Catharanthus roseus(নয়নতারা)- Apocynaceae
  • Xanthium indicum(ঘাগড়া) – Asteraceae
  • Asparagus racemosus (শতমূলী) – Liliaceae

2. Diabetes

  • Gynura procumbens(ডায়াবেটিক প্লান্ট)- Asteraceae
  • Gynura nepalensis(ডায়াবেটিক প্লান্ট)- Asteraceae
  • Coccinia grandis(তেলাকুচা) – Cucurbitaceae
  • Momordica charantea(করলা)- Cucurbitaceae
  • Syzygium cumini (কালোজাম) – Myrtaceae
  • Streblus asper(শেওড়া)- Moraceae
  • Trigonella foenum-graecum(মেথী)- Fabaceae
  • Barringtonia acutangula(হিজল)- Lecythidaceae
  • Acacia nilotica(বাবলা)- Mimosaceae
  • Ficus benghalensis(বট)- Moraceae

3. Cardiac

  • Terminalia arjuna (অর্জুন) – Combretaceae
  • Terminalia chebula(হরিতকি) – Combretaceae
  • Punica granatum(ডালিম)- Punicaceae
  • Calotropis procera (আকন্দ) – Asclepiadaceae
  • Tinospora cordifolia(গুলঞ্চ)- Menispermaceae

4. Dysentery

  • Abroma augusta(উলটকম্বল)- Sterculiceae
  • Holarrhena antidysenterica(কুরচি) – Apocynaceae
  • Aegle marmelos (বেল) – Rutaceae
  • Litsea glutinosa(মেন্দা)- Lauraceae
  • Calotropis gigantea (বড় আকন্দ) – Asclepiadaceae

5. Constipation

  • Aloe barbadensis(ঘৃতকুমারী) – Aloeaceae
  • Basella alba(পুঁইশাক) – Basellaceae
  • Carica papaya (পেপে) – Caricaceae
  • Ricinus communis(ভেরেন্ডা)- Euphorbiaceae
  • Zingiber officinale(আদা) – Zigiberaceae

6. Asthama

  • Acalypha indica(মুক্তাঝুরি)- Euphorbiaceae
  • Acorus calamus (বচ) – Acoraceae
  • Justicia adhatoda(বাসক)- Acanthaceae
  • Euphorbia hirta(বড় দুধিয়া)- Euphorbiaceae
  • Piper nigrum(গোলমরিচ)- Piperaceae

7. Rheumatism

  • Alangium Salviifolium(আনকোরা/আকরকাটা)- Alangiaceae
  • Allium sativum(রসুন) – Liliaceae
  • Aphanamixis polystachya (পিতরাজ) – Meliaceae
  • Cassia Fistula(সোনালু) – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Moringa oleifera(সাজনা)- Moringaceae
  • Vitex negundo(নিশিন্দা) – Verbenaceae
  • Ricinus communis(ভেরেন্ডা) – Euphorbiaceae

8. Jaundis

  • Phyllanthus niruri (ভূই আমলা) – Euphorbiaceae.
  • Alocasia indica(মানকচু) – Araceae
  • Curculigo orchioides(তালমুলী)- Liliaceae
  • Eclipta alba(কেশরাজ) – Asteraceae
  • Averrhoa carambola(কামরাঙা) – Averrhoaceae
  • Cajanus cajan(অড়হর) – Fabaceae
  • Argemone maxicana(শিয়ালকাঁটা) – Asteraceae

9. Blood pressure: [Hypertensive to lower blood pressure]

  • Allamanda cathartica (কলকে ফুল) – Apocynaceae
  • Canna indica(কলাবতী) – Cannaceae
  • Clerodendrum viscosum (ভাটফুল) – Verbenaceae
  • Eclipta alba(কেশরাজ) – Asteraceae
  • Grangea maderaspatana(নামুতি)- Asteraceae
  • Colocasia esculenta(কচু) – Araceae
  • Terminalia arjuna(অর্জুন) – Combretaceae

10. Tuberculosis

  • Acalypha indica(মুক্তাঝুরি) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Alpinia nigra(বড় এলাচ) – Zingiberaceae
  • Justicia adhatoda (বাসক)- Acanthaceae
  • Careya arborea(কুম্ভি/বিড়িপাতা) – Lecythidaceae
  • Vitex trifolia(ছোট নিশিন্দা) – Verbenaceae
  • Benincasa hispida(চাল কুমড়া) – Cucurbitaceae

Classification based on the uses of plant

Plants every parts can contain different types of chemical substances which are the major elements of treating diseases. Sometimes not every parts only specific parts are used to cure the diseases.

1. Whole plants

  • Centella asiatica(থানকুনি) – Apiaceae
  • Andrographis paniculata(কালোমেঘ) -Acanthaceae
  • Boerhavia diffusa(পূনর্ণভা) – Nyctaginaceae
  • Cynodon dactylon(দুর্বাঘাস) – Poaceae
  • Cyperus rotundus(মুথাঘাস) – Cyperaceae
  • Acalypha indica(মুক্তাঝুরি) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Ageratum conyzoides(ফুলকুড়ি) – Asteraceae
  • Chenopodium album(বটুয়াশাক) – Chenopodiaceae
  • Euphorbia hirta(বড় দুধিয়া) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Leucas aspera(দন্ডকলস) – Lamiaceae
  • Mentha arvensis(পুদিনা) – Lamiaceae
  • Scoparia dulcis (বন ধনে) – Scrophulariaceae

2. Root 

  • Aristolochia indica(ঈশ্বরমূল) – Aristolochiaceae
  • Hemidesmus indicus(অনন্তমুল) – Asclepiadaceae
  • Rauvolfia serpentina(সর্পগন্ধা) – Apocynaceae
  • Catharanthus roseus(নয়নতারা)- Apocynaceae
  • Asparagus racemosus (শতমূলী) – Liliaceae
  • Plumbago zeylanica(শ্বেতচিতা)- Plumbaginaceae
  • Withania somnifera (অশ্বগন্ধা) – Solanaceae

3. Stem/Stem bark

  • Acacia catechu(খয়ের)- Mimosaceae
  • Acorus calamus (বচ) – Acoraceae
  • Alstonia scholaris(ছাতিম) – Apocynaceae
  • Careya arborea(কুম্ভি/বিড়িপাতা) – Lecythidaceae
  • Terminalia arjuna(অর্জুন) – Combretaceae
  • Costus speciosus(কেওমূল) – Costaceae
  • Curculigo orchioides(তালমুলী)- Liliaceae
  • Holarrhena antidysenterica(কুরচি) – Apocynaceae
  • Oroxylum indicum (কানাইডিঙি) – Bignoniaceae
  • Azadirachta indica (নিম) – Meliaceae
  • Tinospora cordifolia(গুলঞ্চ) – Menispermaceae

4. Leaf

  • Justicia adhatoda (বাসক)- Acanthaceae
  • Aloe vera(ঘৃতকুমারী) – Aloeaceae
  • Calotropis procera (আকন্দ) – Asclepiadaceae
  • Calotropis gigantea(বড় আকন্দ) – Asclepiadaceae
  • Senna alata(দাদমর্দন) – Caesalpiniaceae
  • Cinnamomum tamala (তেজপাতা) – Lauraceae
  • Piper betle(পানপাতা) – Piperaceae
  • Clerodendrum viscosum(ভাটফুল) – Verbenaceae
  • Lawsonia inermis(মেহেদি) – Lythraceae
  • Kalanchoe pinnata(পাথরকুচি) – Crassulaceae
  • Justicia gendarussa(জগত মর্দন) – Acanthaceae

5. Flowers

  • Hibiscus rosa-sinensis(জবা) – Malvaceae
  • Carthamus tinctorius (কুসুমফুল) – Asteraceae
  • Tagetes patula(রক্তগাদা) – Asteraceae
  • Tagetes erecta(গাদা) – Asteraceae
  • Calendula officinalis(ক্যালেন্ডুলা) – Asteraceae
  • Rosa centifolia(গোলাপ) – Rosaceae

6. Fruits

  • Aegle marmelos (বেল) – Rutaceae
  • Annona squamosa(সরিফা/আতা) – Annonaceae
  • Averrhoa bilimbi(বিলিম্বি) – Averrhoaceae
  • Citrus aurantifolia(কাগজীলেবু) – Rutaceae
  • Benincasa hispida(চাল কুমড়া) – Cucurbitaceae
  • Terminalia arjuna(অর্জুন) – Combretaceae
  • Momordica charantea(করলা) -Cucurbitaceae

7. Seeds

  • Abrus precatorius(কুঁচ) – Fabaceae
  • Bixa Orellana(লিপিস্টিক ট্রি/ফলস জাফরান/ফলস লটকন) – Bixaceae
  • Croton tiglium (জামালগোটা) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Jatropha curcus(সাদা ভেরেন্ডা) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Nigella sativa(কালোজিরা) – Ranunculaceae
  • Strychnos nux-vomica(কুচিলা) – Loganiaceae
  • Ricinus communis(ভেরেন্ডা) – Euphorbiaceae
  • Trigonella foenum-graecum(মেথী) – Fabaceae

Thank You. 

N.B: All plant Families are given according to Dr. Md. Oliur Rahman Sir, Professor, Department of Botany, University of Dhaka. And APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny group) given family names are not considered in this article. If there any mistake found in this post, only author is to blame.

 

Revised by:

1. Tarek Siddiki Taki (29.07.2020)

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About Md. Siddiq Hasan

Md. Siddiq Hasan
Wants to live in the Nature where every living being is known to me...

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Fredrick
Fredrick
4 months ago

The article is very informative. I’m doing my MSC research work and I would like to some information from this article. Please, how do I cite this article?

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