Monthly Archives: June 2019

Cytpoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility

The male sterility which  is governed by both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes is known as Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility or CGMS. While CMS is controlled by an extra-nuclear genome, nuclear gene may have the capability to restore fertility. When nuclear restoration of fertility genes (“Rf”) is available for a CMS …

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Cytoplasmic Male Sterility

Male sterility, as the name indicates, is the inability of a plant to produce male reproductive organ, the viable pollens. Male sterility can occur due to extra-nuclear genetic or nuclear genetic condition. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) refers to the inability of a plant to produce viable pollens due to cytoplasm …

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Induction, Repression & The Operon Models

Genes are the carriers of all the information of an organism. These information are needed for different protein synthesis at different time. So expression of gene can effect an organism’s characteristics, health and so on. As gene expression is a very important feature for any organism as well as for …

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Principles & Methods of Plant Disease Control

Plants are the vital element of Environment. Like men and animals, plants are  not free from disease. As they have diverse and significant  rules in our existence in this earth, scientists are concerned about them specialy at their danger. So, to keep plants free from pathogens or diseases the word …

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Divisions: Pyrrhophyta, Cryptophyta, Rhodophyta

Algae is an extremely diverse group of organisms that make up the lower phylogenetic echelons of the plant kingdom. A precise definition of this group is elusive and they share many obvious characteristics with higher land plants, whereas their distinguishing features from other plant groups are varied and more subtle …

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The Basic Concepts Of Plant Disease

According to Encyclopedia Britannica- Plant disease is an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. The effects of a disease that can be observed is called the symptoms. A disease can be identified depending on the symptoms as different diseases show different symptoms. …

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Overseasoning of Pathogens

Over-wintering and/or over-summering of pathogen Over-seasoning is an evolutionary developed technique followed by many pathogens to survive the adverse period of their life cycle. It has been developed in the pathogens so that they can complete their life cycle and can spread their infections in the next year. The pathogens …

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Infection and Dissemination

Infection When the inoculum starts procuring nutrients from the susceptible tissues of the host, the infection starts. This is the first stage from where the disease starts to develop. As the pathogen devours soluble products from the cell, various symptoms start appearing. Discolorness, malformation, necrotic areas are common in the …

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Inoculation and Penetration

Inoculation Inoculation is the first contact of a pathogen with its host in a place where infection is possible. The pathogen may be in any of its stages of its life cycle. For example Organism  Propagule (One unit of inoculum) Fungi Spores (both sexual and asexual), Sclerotia (a compact mass …

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The Causes Behind Plant Disease

Plants are a big and essential part of our life for so many reasons. One of the reasons are plants produce Oxygen which is needed for respiration. Another  reason is plants have an unique quality of producing food through photosynthesis, for which we, humans and animals are dependant on plants …

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