There are two main methods of presenting data of a variable character or a variable.

**A) Tabulation/Tabular Presentation**

**B) Drawing/Graphical Presentation**

**Tabulation**

**T****abulation** are devices for presenting data from a mass of statistical data. Preparation of **frequency distribution** table is that the first requirement. Tables are often simple or complex depending upon measurement of single set of things or multiple sets of things.

**Frequency Distribution**

The distribution of the overall number of observations among the various categories is termed as frequency distributions.

Frequency Distribution is very important step in statistical analysis. It groups sizable amount of series or observations of master table and presents the data very concisely, giving all information at a look.

It records how frequently a characteristic or an occurrence occurs in persons of the same group.Data are often recorded within the sort of frequency table.

In short, collecting and summarizing great amount of data is called frequency distribution.

**Rules for Making Frequency Distribution Table**

- The class or group interval between the groups should not be too broad or too narrow. Too large a group will omit the details and too small will defeat the purpose of making the data concise.
- The number of groups or classes should not be too many or too few but ordinarily between 6 and 16 depending on the details necessary and the size of sample.
- The class interval should be same.
- The headings must be clear such as “height” in inches or in centimeters, “age” in years or months. If the data are expressed as rates mention percent or per thousand.
- The rates and proportions, if given the actual number in the group must also be noted.
- Groups should be tabulated in ascending or descending order.
- If certain data are omitted or excluded deliberately, the reasons for the same should be given.

**Types of Tabulation**

- Simple Tabulation
- Complex Tabulation

**1. Simple Tabulation**

**Simple Tabulation** is when the information/data are tabulated to one characteristic. For example, the survey that determined the frequency or number of employees of a firm owning different brands of mobile phones.

**2. Complex tabulation**

When the data are tabulated consistent with many characteristics, it is said to be a **complex tabulation**.

**Grafical Distribution**

According to the type of data, grafical distribution or drawing is categorised as following:

**A) Graphs for quantitative data**

**1) Histogram**

A **histogram** is a graphical display of data using bars of various heights. In a **histogram**, each bar groups numbers into ranges. Taller bars show that more data falls in this range. A **histogram** displays the form/shape and spread of continuous sample data.

**2) Frequency Polygon**

A **frequency polygon** is a graph constructed by using lines to join the midpoints of every interval, or bin. The heights of the points represent the frequencies. A **frequency polygon** are often created from the histogram or by calculating the midpoints of the bins from the **frequency distribution** table.

**3) Frequency Curve**

A **frequency-curve** is a smooth curve for which the entire area is taken to be unity. It’s a limiting sort of a **histogram** or **frequency polygon**. The **frequency-curve** for a distribution can be obtained by drawing a smooth and free hand/blank check curve through the mid-points of the upper sides of the rectangles forming the **histogram**.

**4) Line Chart**

A **line chart** is a graphical representation of an asset’s historical price action that connects a series of data points with a continual line. This is often the foremost basic type of chart used in finance and typically only depicts a security’s closing prices over time.

**5) Normal Distribution Curve**

A **normal distribution** is a type of continuous probability distribution for a real-valued random variable.A ** normal distribution** is usually informally called a

**bell**

**curve**.

**6) Cumulative Distribution Curve**

In statistics, the cumulative distribution function of a real-valued random variable, or just distribution function of, evaluated at, is the probability that will take a value less than or adequate to.

**7) Scatter Diagram**

A graph during which the values of two variables are plotted along two axis, the pattern of the resulting points revealing any correlation present.

**B) Diagrams for qualitative data**

**1) Bar Chart**

A **bar chart** or **bar graph** is a chart or graph that presents categorical data with rectangular bars with heights or lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be often plotted vertically or horizontally. A vertical **bar chart** is usually called a column chart.

**2) Pictogram**

A **pictogram** is a chart that uses pictures to represent data. **Pictograms** are set out in the same way as bar charts, but rather than bars they use columns of pictures to point out the numbers involved.

**3) Pie Chart**

A **pie chart** is a sort of graph in which a circle is split into sectors that each represents a proportion of the entire. **Pie charts** are a useful way to organize data in order to see the size of components relative to the entire, and are particularly good at showing percentage or proportional data.

**4) Map Diagram**

**Map diagram** is a method of representation of any event distribution by means of diagrams, that are placed on the map inside the structure of territorial division which express the summarized value of this event within the bounds of this territorial structure.

*Q&A*

*Q&A*

You Are interested in the percentage of female versus male shoppers at a department store.

Which chart or graph would be appropriate to display the proportion of males versus females among the shoppers?

**A)**A bar graph

**B)**A time plot

**C)**A pie chart

**D)**Choices (A) and (C)

**E)**Choices (A),(B) and (C)

Ans: (D)

Gender is a qualitative variable, so both bar graphs and pie charts are appropriate to display the proportion of males versus females among the shoppers. You could use a time plot only if you knew how many males and how many females were in the store at each individual time period.

Ref:**Statistics**: **1,001 Practice Problems For Dummies**

Source:

1. Feature image: https://epthinktank.eu/2015/08/17/eprs-graphic-warehouse-when-a-picture-tells/amp/

2. Methods of Biostatistics- Mahajan

Revised by:

1. Tarek siddiki Taki ( 08.08.2020)