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TimeLine Layout

September, 2021

  • 16 September

    Marine Algae & Seaweeds: With Origin of Green Lineage

    Here, the Protista kingdom of Eukarya domain have been shortly introduced at first to get an idea over general characteristics of one of Protista’s members, the marine flora (mainly algae and seaweeds). (To know about domains of life, click here: Three Domain System.) Domain Eukarya Coming from the Greek words …

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  • 4 September

    Fungi: Sexual Reproduction

    Fungi are microscopic/macroscopic eukaryotic and heterotrophic organisms exhibiting growth on various natural and synthetic substrates and are capable of continuing their function almost indefinitely. Unlike other microorganisms such as algae, fungi lack the chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis and must therefore live as parasites or saprobes. About 80 000 to 1,20,000 …

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  • 3 September

    Fungi: Asexual Reproduction & Reproductive Structures

    The fungi constitute a group of living organisms devoid of chlorophyll. They resemble simple plants in that, with few exceptions, they have definite cell walls, they are usually nonmotile, although they may have motile reproductive cells, and they reproduce by means of spores. A spore (Gr. spora = seed, spore) …

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  • 2 September

    Pollination: Introduction, Types and Conditions

    Pollination is a very significant process of reproduction in plants. Creating offspring for the next generation is one of the major goals of every organism. Plants are indifferent too. One of the ways that plants can produce offspring is by making seeds, i. e., by sexual reproduction. Seeds contain the …

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  • 2 September

    Malthus’ Law & How It Catalyzed Darwin’s Thought

    Malthus & Darwin

    Five years with nature aboard, the Beagle destroyed Darwin’s faith in the fixity of species. In July, 1837, shortly after the voyage, he started his first notebook on “transmutation.” Already convinced that evolution had occurred, Darwin sought a theory to explain its mechanism. After much preliminary speculation and a few …

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  • 2 September

    ATP Synthase: World’s Smallest Motor

    Ever wondered that your very own body might contain a motor like the one we use to run any machine? And it is not just any motor, but a motor recorded to be the world’s smallest one. This motor is commonly known as ATP synthase. Every one of the 50 …

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August, 2021

  • 30 August

    Endoplasmic Reticulum: Discovery, Structure, & Function

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

    The ER is the most extended organelle in plenty of eukaryotic cells: on average it occupies 10% of the cellular volume (Eelco and Roberto, 2016). The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, continuous organelle that extends throughout the entire cell (Eelco and Roberto, 2016). The ER not only is the …

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  • 30 August

    Restriction Enzymes: An Introduction to Biological Knives

    Restriction Enzyme

    The  first step in sequencing a genome is to divide the individual chromosomes (in eukaryotes) or whole DNA (in prokaryotes) in an ordered manner into smaller and smaller pieces that ultimately can be sequenced. That is, one begins by creating a genomic library of fragmented DNA parts. However, at some …

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  • 25 August

    Organization of Nuclear DNA in Eukaryotes

    Each eukaryotic nucleus encloses a fixed number of chromosomes which contain the nuclear DNA. During most of a cell’s life, its chromosomes exist in a highly extended linear form. Prior to cell division, however, they condense into much more compact bodies which can be examined microscopically after staining. The duplication …

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  • 25 August

    Genome Structure in Viruses & Prokaryotes

    Genome

    The genomes of viruses and prokaryotes are very simple structures, although those of viruses show remarkable diversity (for a review see Dimmock et al. 2001). Most viruses have a single linear or circular genome but a few, such as reoviruses, bacteriophage φ6 and some plant viruses, have segmented RNA genomes. …

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