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Pteridophytes: Origin and Evolution

They are the earliest known vascular plants that originated in the Silurian period (400 million years ago) of the Palaeozoic Era and subsequently diversified and formed the dominant vegetation on earth during Devonian to Permian period. There are controversies regard­ing their origin and evolution. There are two broad theories about …

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Evolution of Plants: Telome Theory

Telome theory was proposed by Walter Zimmerman (1952, 1965). This theory is based on fossil records and explains the major steps in the evolution of vascular plants. According to this theory, all vascular plants have evolved from simple, leaf-less, root-less and dichotomously branched sterile and fertile axes called telomes which …

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Identification Of Ascomycetes: The Sac Fungi

In the kingdom Fungi, there are two major phyla- Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. These two together form a subkingdom of fungi named as Dikarya. They together were named such as members of both phyla maintain most part of their life cycle in dikaryotic stage meaning each cell contains two genetically different …

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Polyembryony: Multiple Embryos in a Seed

The phenomenon of polyembryony, i.e., the occurrence of more than one embryo in a seed, has attracted much attention ever since its initial discovery in the orange (Citrus sinensis) by Leeuwenhoek (1719). Ernst (1918) and Schnarf (1929), who have reviewed the older literature, classify it into two types—”true” and “false”—depending …

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Apomixis: A Subistitution for Sexual Reproduction

Apomixis maybe defined (Winkler, 1908, 1934) as the substitution for sexual reproduction (amphimixis) of an asexual process which does not involve any nuclear fusion. For the sake of convenience it may be subdivided into four classes. Non-recurrent apomixis Recurrent apomixis Adventive embryony Vegetative propagation Non-recurrent apomixis In the first, or …

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Steps of Fertilization

Fertilization is the union of male and female gametes to produce a zygote. There are several steps of fertilization. They are described below. Germination of Pollen. The course of the pollen tube. Entry of pollen tube into the ovule. Entry of pollen tube into the embryo sac. Gametic fusion. Germination …

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Female Gametophyte: The Embryo Sac with Its Types

The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and gives rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that …

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Nemec Phenomenon: Embryo Sac Like Pollen Grain

In 1898, Nemec noted that in the petaloid anthers of Hyacinthus orientalis, the pollen grains sometimes form large eight-nucleate structures showing a surprising resemblance to embryo sacs. He believed that they arose as the result of a degeneration of the generative nucleus and three divisions of the vegetative nucleus of …

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Discovery about the Male, Female Gametophytes & Syngamy

Among early students of the development of pollen, Hofmeister (1848) presented some surprisingly good illustrations of the process of tetrad formation (microspore tetrad), and Reichenbach, Hartig and several other workers noted the presence of two nuclei in whole mounts of the mature pollen grains of several angiosperms. Discovery of nature …

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