Tag Archives: Genetics

Transposable Genetic Elements

Transposons were first discovered in corn (maize) during the 1940s and ’50s by American scientist Barbara McClintock, whose work won her the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1983. The colourful pattern on maize ears have an important scientific significance. Modern research have shown that the stripes and spots …

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DNA Replication in Eukaryotes: Linear Replication

DNA replication in eukaryotes is a complex and unique process involving many enzymes and thousands of ORI at a single time. Unlike the prokaryotic DNA, it involves a linear mode of replication. Why does linear DNA replication involve  multiple origins at a time? The large linear chromosomes in eukaryotic cell …

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Replication in Circular DNA: Theta Model

Following Meselson and Stahl’s work, investigators confirmed that other organisms also use semiconservative replication. There are, however, several different ways that semiconservative replication can take place, differing principally in the nature of the template DNA—whether it is linear or circular—and in the number of replication forks. Replicon and Origin of …

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Translation: mRNA to Protein

Translation takes place on ribosomes; indeed, ribosomes can be thought of as moving protein-synthesizing machines. A ribosome attaches near the 5′ end of an mRNA strand and moves toward the 3′ end, translating the codons as it goes. Synthesis begins at the amino end of the protein, and the protein …

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Post-transcriptional Modification

The process of transcription is very similar in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but there are major differences in the relation between the transcript and the mRNA used for polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the immediate product of transcription (the primary transcript) is mRNA; by contrast, the primary transcript (also called …

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Genetic Code

The four bases in DNA – A, T, G, and C are sufficient to specify the 20 amino acids in proteins because each codon is three bases in length. Each sequence of three adjacent bases in mRNA is a codon that specifies a particular amino acid (or chain termination). The …

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Transcription: The Mechanism of pre-mRNA Synthesis

Transcription is the synthesis of RNA molecule using one of the DNA strands as a template. It is the first step in the transfer of genetic information from genotype to phenotype. However, this process of transcription is a highly selective one i.e definite genes are transcribed only when their products …

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Induction, Repression & The Operon Models

Genes are the carriers of all the information of an organism. These information are needed for different protein synthesis at different time. So expression of gene can effect an organism’s characteristics, health and so on. As gene expression is a very important feature for any organism as well as for …

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The Selfish Gene: The Mean of Existence

Part-1 This is more of a book review than just an article sharing including intuitive visualizations from the other sources related to “The Selfish Gene” (1976) on evolutionary biology by the evangelist of biological science Richard Dawkins. Unfortunately, this book wasn’t too popular from the day of it’s publications because …

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