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GMO: A Blessing or A Curse?

What is GMO? A Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic materials has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. A GMO is the result of a laboratory process where genes from the DNA of one species are extracted and artificially forced into the genes of an unrelated plant …

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The Lipid

Lipids are a heterogeneous group of compounds that are related to fatty acids. They are usually esters of fatty acids with alcohols. Examples include fats, oils, waxes, and other substances. Fats (solid) and oils (liquid) = Glycerol (tri-hydroxy alcohol) + 3 fatty acids. Wax = Mono-hydroxyl alcohol + Fatty acid. …

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Endosymbiosis in Plant Sap-Feeding Insects (Part-2)

The vast majority of observed plant sap-feeding hemipterans colonized by primary symbionts are defined by three traits. First of all, phylogenetically as they are universally present in the host species, have much-reduced genomes and have evolved from multiple phylogenetic origins such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Secondly, they …

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Introduction to Fatty acids

Fatty acid is an important constituent of fat and is the derivatives of hydrocarbon. It is a carboxylic acid (-COOH) with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Some fatty acids may have hydroxyl group in its chain (hydroxy fatty acids) and still others may possess ring …

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The Selfish Gene: The Mean of Existence

Part-1 This is more of a book review than just an article sharing including intuitive visualizations from the other sources related to “The Selfish Gene” (1976) on evolutionary biology by the evangelist of biological science Richard Dawkins. Unfortunately, this book wasn’t too popular from the day of it’s publications because …

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