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Fungi: Sexual Reproduction

Fungi are microscopic/macroscopic eukaryotic and heterotrophic organisms exhibiting growth on various natural and synthetic substrates and are capable of continuing their function almost indefinitely. Unlike other microorganisms such as algae, fungi lack the chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis and must therefore live as parasites or saprobes. About 80 000 to 1,20,000 …

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Organization of Nuclear DNA in Eukaryotes

Each eukaryotic nucleus encloses a fixed number of chromosomes which contain the nuclear DNA. During most of a cell’s life, its chromosomes exist in a highly extended linear form. Prior to cell division, however, they condense into much more compact bodies which can be examined microscopically after staining. The duplication …

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Genome Structure in Viruses & Prokaryotes


The genomes of viruses and prokaryotes are very simple structures, although those of viruses show remarkable diversity (for a review see Dimmock et al. 2001). Most viruses have a single linear or circular genome but a few, such as reoviruses, bacteriophage φ6 and some plant viruses, have segmented RNA genomes. …

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DNA Reassociation Kinetics & Sequence Complexity

When double-stranded DNA in solution is heated, it denatures (‘melts’) releasing the complementary single strands. If the solution is cooled quickly the DNA remains in a single-stranded state. However, if the solution is cooled slowly reassociation/reannealing i. e. spontaneous realignment of two single DNA strands to re-form a DNA double …

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