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Measures of Central Value: Mean, Median, Mode & Others

There are various methods to measure the central value of an observation. For instance, average, mean, median, mode, etc. Average The average value of a characteristic is the one central value around which all other observations are distributed. In any large series, nearly 50% of observations lie above the central …

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Endosperm & It’s Types in Angiosperms

The endosperm is important because it is the main source of food for the embryo. In gymnosperms it is haploid and forms a continuation of the female gametophyte. In angiosperms, on the other hand, it is a new structure formed in most cases as the result of a fusion of …

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Pyrrophyta: The Fire Algae (Dinoflagellate)

Pyrrophyta or fire algae is a division of unicellular algae that has a yellow brown color, and has two different flagella which are ribbon-shaped. It contains some pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, c1, c2 and fucoxanthin) that can photosynthesize. Early botanists classified dinoflagellates as a separate division of algae, which they named …

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